The Digital Media Project
P. Merrill, C. Schultz
Requirements for Interoperable
The DRM requirements contained herein are proposed as a draft document
in response to DC1 P1, "Develop RQ for DC2" in the Digital Media
Manifesto at section A, with DC2 being "Interoperable DRM platforms"
including end user devices. The authors would like to note that although
the scope of DC2 is end-end, this document concentrates primarily on the
end-user interface. However, it is expected that many of the same requirements
will be found in other parts of the end-end chain as well. For each requirement
listed, an example Use case will be identified to include in the document
for informational purposes. These may also be found in the accompanying
Use Case document.
2. Terms and definitions
- Conditions - Dimensions of freedom for instances of rights expressions
(e.g., REL), imposing restrictions or licensing reproductions.
- First sale principle - The ability to own a digital media good in
such a way that such ownership can be transferred and also sold, for example
by means of an online auction house.
- Persistent association - data that adheres to or otherwise travels
with main digital media data such that the properties of data that is
in persistent association can be queried and return values.
- Rights Expressions Conditions of usage for digital media that
can be expressed using multivariable permission sets..
- User -<smile>A bloke defined in MPEG-21 however with all relevant
addition characteristics such as might be required by DMM, or DMP 7 core
3. Requirements for Interoperable DRM Platforms
The following requirements 1-4 are not only requirements that the DMP
DC2 shall provide specifications for but also what any implementation
claiming compliance to the DMP DRM specifications shall implement.
The requirements found in 5 are requirements that DMP DC2 shall provide
specifications for but a given device can either implement or not depending
on conditions for access it is expected or able to honor. The traditional
user rights in 6 are requirements that DMP DC2 shall provide specifications
for and any implementation claiming compliance to the DMP DC2 specifications
shall technically support, however the configurations to activate the
requirements in 6 are not universally required to be implemented but should
be at least implemented to comply with regional legal systems and where
the digital technology pertinent to the underlying device or media type
reasonably allow such support.
Please note that the phrase identifiers provided below are not intended
to explain but rather only to refer to their respective requirements as
- "provider independence" - DMP DRM shall technically enable
end users to access DMP DRM content independently of the provider of
Example - An end-user receives a governed terrestrial broadcast and
a subscription service from a cable provider using the same receiver.
- "transmission agnostic" - A DMP compliant bitstream/file
shall be transmission-agnostic, able to exist as a file or be transmitted
by wire or wireless, and it shall by packetisable over TCP/IP and other
packet-based transport protocols, e.g. MPEG-2 TS.
Example - Users of fully DMP DRM-governed home networks are able to
e-mail each other DMP DRM-governed files as attachments to their e-mail,
although FTP is an effective alternative for larger files.
- "persistent association" - DMP DRM shall support the persistent
association of Rights Expressions and Conditions to DMP DRM compliant
Example - REL data remain the same as multiple users exchange ownership
of an item of digital media.
- "unique ID" - DMP DRM shall support the persistent and unique
identification of DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files and their derivatives.
Example - Twenty years after the death of a famous composer, his analogue
and digital belongings are given to a library. It is possible to readily
identify which digital items are DMP DRM encoded. It should also be
possible to readily use these files, and details for such use remains
part of each file's digital structure.
- "functionality options" - DMP DRM shall provide specifications
for DMP DRM compliant implementations supporting the following functionalities
as determined by rights expressions and conditions associated with a
given DMP DRM compliant bitstream/file.
- "trust relationship functionality" - DMP DRM shall support
trust relationships to be determined as existing between DMP DRM
compliant devices, applications, services, and DMP DRM compliant
Example - An already purchased good may be downloaded from a website
because a trust relationship permits the data access and transfer.
- "cleartext-ability functionality" - DMP DRM shall support
the transfer over unsecure channels of governed DMP DRM compliant
bitstreams/files while in a cleartext state.
Example - Governed content is stored on a secure home server in
the clear and then transmitted over wireless using DTCP to the family
entertainment system. It is stored and transmitted as cleartext
but the unsecure channel that it is transmitted across is made secure.
- "scope of governance functionality" - DMP DRM shall
support a DMP bitstream/file to exist in a DRM governed state unless
stored in or accessed from a DMP DRM compliant device or virtual
Example - A DMP DRM-governed video file has been burned onto a DVD-R.
It can be accessed and used in a home network with full connectivity.
- "ID persistence functionality" - DMP DRM shall support
the persistent binding or association of an individual person, user
or other entity with DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files
Example - Functional support for an artist who creates a commissioned
work and immediately gives it to his patron on completion with the
stipulation that all successive enjoyers of rights shall be informed
of this previous chain of ownership. Also see death of a famous
composer example above (at 4. unique ID).
- "inter-implementation transfer functionality" - DMP
DRM shall support the transfer and use of DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files
between one given DMP DRM compliant DRM implementation and another
DMP DRM compliant DRM implementation.
Example - Two musicians in the Gobi desert have audio-equipped tablet
devices and are taking turns composing tracks for a song file. Whether
through cords or wirelessly, they are able to exchange updated versions
of the song file.
- "transfer to non-DMP functionality" - DMP DRM shall
support the storage, transfer and use of DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files
on non-DMP DRM compliant devices.
Example A CD-ROM drive manufactured before the DMP DRM specifications
were available could still be used within a DMP DRM application
through the use of DMP DRM compliant coding on the optical disc
or a DMP DRM compliant "burning" application.
- "configurable TRU" - DMP DRM shall technically support the
implementation of the following traditional rights and usages in a manner
that is extendable for additional rights and is configurable to legal
mandates imposed by regional jurisdictions.
- "quote+ TRU" - DMP DRM shall technically support the
implementation of the use of DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files
for review, editorial or other critical works including the "right
Example - In a wide variety of DMP DRM governed media that includes
text, when accessed on common consumer computing devices, it is
always possible to copy at least two sentences of text to the Clipboard
application, in the clear.
- "pass-around TRU" - DMP DRM shall support the transfer
of DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files from one DMP DRM compliant
device to another with the secure removal from the first device.
Example - The musicians in the Gobi example (at 5.e. inter-implementation
transfer functionality) however the data is completely transfered
without a remnant each time the song file is exchanged.
- "transferability TRU" - DMP DRM shall technically support
the implementation of the loan, transfer by intent (including by
inheritance or last will and testament), or deletion of DMP DRM
Example - College dorm "yard sale" of used digital goods
in order to raise money for a dorm event.
- "continued access TRU" - DMP DRM shall support the guarantee
of continued access to ones DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files.
Example - After a catastrophic loss, such as fire or flood, a digital
library can be reassembled because persistent rights and usage information
exists outside the scope of data eliminated by the catastrophe.
- "device-choice TRU" - DMP DRM shall support the ability
to choose playback device.
Example - A guest brings a CD-R with a DMP DRM-governed file on
it to a host's house, hoping the host will listen to it. The host
puts the CD-R in a drive connected to the home network and is able
to offer his guest a choice of hearing it through the stereo, the
PC or the television.
- "anonymity TRU" - DMP DRM shall support the acquisition
and use of DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files anonymously.
Example - A rebel dissident is able to gather useful information
about freedoms and different forms of government without his own
government immediately finding out and arresting him.
- "public domain access TRU" - DMP DRM shall support the
ability to access works whose copyright has expired.
Example - Time sensitivity and regional law configurations will
allow cleartext access eventualy, because DMP DRM can be capable
of expiring according to a copyright protection schedule (ref. Henry
Ryan research on regulatory ontology) and note regional law configuration