The Digital Media Project

 

Source

P. Merrill, C. Schultz

Title

Requirements for Interoperable DRM Platforms

No.

031010MerrilSchultz01r02

 

1. Introduction

The DRM requirements contained herein are proposed as a draft document in response to DC1 P1, "Develop RQ for DC2" in the Digital Media Manifesto at section A, with DC2 being "Interoperable DRM platforms" including end user devices. The authors would like to note that although the scope of DC2 is end-end, this document concentrates primarily on the end-user interface. However, it is expected that many of the same requirements will be found in other parts of the end-end chain as well. For each requirement listed, an example Use case will be identified to include in the document for informational purposes. These may also be found in the accompanying Use Case document.

2. Terms and definitions

  1. Conditions - Dimensions of freedom for instances of rights expressions (e.g., REL), imposing restrictions or licensing reproductions.
  2. First sale principle - The ability to own a digital media good in such a way that such ownership can be transferred and also sold, for example by means of an online auction house.
  3. Persistent association - data that adheres to or otherwise travels with main digital media data such that the properties of data that is in persistent association can be queried and return values.
  4. Rights Expressions – Conditions of usage for digital media that can be expressed using multivariable permission sets..
  5. User -<smile>A bloke defined in MPEG-21 however with all relevant addition characteristics such as might be required by DMM, or DMP 7 core principles.</smile>

3. Requirements for Interoperable DRM Platforms

The following requirements 1-4 are not only requirements that the DMP DC2 shall provide specifications for but also what any implementation claiming compliance to the DMP DRM specifications shall implement.

The requirements found in 5 are requirements that DMP DC2 shall provide specifications for but a given device can either implement or not depending on conditions for access it is expected or able to honor. The traditional user rights in 6 are requirements that DMP DC2 shall provide specifications for and any implementation claiming compliance to the DMP DC2 specifications shall technically support, however the configurations to activate the requirements in 6 are not universally required to be implemented but should be at least implemented to comply with regional legal systems and where the digital technology pertinent to the underlying device or media type reasonably allow such support.

Please note that the phrase identifiers provided below are not intended to explain but rather only to refer to their respective requirements as fully described.

  1. "provider independence" - DMP DRM shall technically enable end users to access DMP DRM content independently of the provider of content.
    Example - An end-user receives a governed terrestrial broadcast and a subscription service from a cable provider using the same receiver.
  2. "transmission agnostic" - A DMP compliant bitstream/file shall be transmission-agnostic, able to exist as a file or be transmitted by wire or wireless, and it shall by packetisable over TCP/IP and other packet-based transport protocols, e.g. MPEG-2 TS.
    Example - Users of fully DMP DRM-governed home networks are able to e-mail each other DMP DRM-governed files as attachments to their e-mail, although FTP is an effective alternative for larger files.
  3. "persistent association" - DMP DRM shall support the persistent association of Rights Expressions and Conditions to DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files.
    Example - REL data remain the same as multiple users exchange ownership of an item of digital media.
  4. "unique ID" - DMP DRM shall support the persistent and unique identification of DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files and their derivatives.
    Example - Twenty years after the death of a famous composer, his analogue and digital belongings are given to a library. It is possible to readily identify which digital items are DMP DRM encoded. It should also be possible to readily use these files, and details for such use remains part of each file's digital structure.
  5. "functionality options" - DMP DRM shall provide specifications for DMP DRM compliant implementations supporting the following functionalities as determined by rights expressions and conditions associated with a given DMP DRM compliant bitstream/file.
    1. "trust relationship functionality" - DMP DRM shall support trust relationships to be determined as existing between DMP DRM compliant devices, applications, services, and DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files.
      Example - An already purchased good may be downloaded from a website because a trust relationship permits the data access and transfer.
    2. "cleartext-ability functionality" - DMP DRM shall support the transfer over unsecure channels of governed DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files while in a cleartext state.
      Example - Governed content is stored on a secure home server in the clear and then transmitted over wireless using DTCP to the family entertainment system. It is stored and transmitted as cleartext but the unsecure channel that it is transmitted across is made secure.
    3. "scope of governance functionality" - DMP DRM shall support a DMP bitstream/file to exist in a DRM governed state unless stored in or accessed from a DMP DRM compliant device or virtual environment.
      Example - A DMP DRM-governed video file has been burned onto a DVD-R. It can be accessed and used in a home network with full connectivity.
    4. "ID persistence functionality" - DMP DRM shall support the persistent binding or association of an individual person, user or other entity with DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files
      Example - Functional support for an artist who creates a commissioned work and immediately gives it to his patron on completion with the stipulation that all successive enjoyers of rights shall be informed of this previous chain of ownership. Also see death of a famous composer example above (at 4. unique ID).
    5. "inter-implementation transfer functionality" - DMP DRM shall support the transfer and use of DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files between one given DMP DRM compliant DRM implementation and another DMP DRM compliant DRM implementation.
      Example - Two musicians in the Gobi desert have audio-equipped tablet devices and are taking turns composing tracks for a song file. Whether through cords or wirelessly, they are able to exchange updated versions of the song file.
    6. "transfer to non-DMP functionality" - DMP DRM shall support the storage, transfer and use of DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files on non-DMP DRM compliant devices.
      Example – A CD-ROM drive manufactured before the DMP DRM specifications were available could still be used within a DMP DRM application through the use of DMP DRM compliant coding on the optical disc or a DMP DRM compliant "burning" application.
  6. "configurable TRU" - DMP DRM shall technically support the implementation of the following traditional rights and usages in a manner that is extendable for additional rights and is configurable to legal mandates imposed by regional jurisdictions.
    1. "quote+ TRU" - DMP DRM shall technically support the implementation of the use of DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files for review, editorial or other critical works including the "right to quote".
      Example - In a wide variety of DMP DRM governed media that includes text, when accessed on common consumer computing devices, it is always possible to copy at least two sentences of text to the Clipboard application, in the clear.
    2. "pass-around TRU" - DMP DRM shall support the transfer of DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files from one DMP DRM compliant device to another with the secure removal from the first device.
      Example - The musicians in the Gobi example (at 5.e. inter-implementation transfer functionality) however the data is completely transfered without a remnant each time the song file is exchanged.
    3. "transferability TRU" - DMP DRM shall technically support the implementation of the loan, transfer by intent (including by inheritance or last will and testament), or deletion of DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files.
      Example - College dorm "yard sale" of used digital goods in order to raise money for a dorm event.
    4. "continued access TRU" - DMP DRM shall support the guarantee of continued access to one’s DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files.
      Example - After a catastrophic loss, such as fire or flood, a digital library can be reassembled because persistent rights and usage information exists outside the scope of data eliminated by the catastrophe.
    5. "device-choice TRU" - DMP DRM shall support the ability to choose playback device.
      Example - A guest brings a CD-R with a DMP DRM-governed file on it to a host's house, hoping the host will listen to it. The host puts the CD-R in a drive connected to the home network and is able to offer his guest a choice of hearing it through the stereo, the PC or the television.
    6. "anonymity TRU" - DMP DRM shall support the acquisition and use of DMP DRM compliant bitstreams/files anonymously.
      Example - A rebel dissident is able to gather useful information about freedoms and different forms of government without his own government immediately finding out and arresting him.
    7. "public domain access TRU" - DMP DRM shall support the ability to access works whose copyright has expired.
      Example - Time sensitivity and regional law configurations will allow cleartext access eventualy, because DMP DRM can be capable of expiring according to a copyright protection schedule (ref. Henry Ryan research on regulatory ontology) and note regional law configuration granularity.