The Digital Media Project  
Source Martin Schmucker
Title The “Sheet Music Publisher” Scenario No. 040906schmucker01

 

The “Sheet Music Publisher” Scenario 

1         Scenario description

A sheet music publisher is contacted by or contacts composers for distribution of the composers work. If a publisher and a composer agree several steps are necessary from acquiring the work till the final distribution to customers. Yet, the tasks to be done are not finished after a work is sold. Even after selling work publishers have to further tasks, which are related to control and payment of rights usages.  

Especially for sheet music publishers digital content distribution provides advantages, which are obvious. On the one hand everyone is aware of the drawbacks of traditional distribution of printed sheet music: Stores have only limited accessibility due to their opening hours. Even if a shop is opened typically the sheet music desired by a customer is not available and has to be delivered by mail. This process is time consuming and often the shipping costs outweigh the costs of the product itself. This is also the case if printed scores are ordered via a web portal.  

The online distribution of digital content overcomes these drawbacks: no expensive stock is needed; digital data is accessible 24 hours a day and 7 hours a week; shipping can be done within seconds or minutes depending on the speed of the Internet connection. Furthermore new types of distribution are possible. One important aspect is the composers’ and musicians’ possibility of self-promotion and their direct contact to customers.  

Yet, for an economically efficient distribution several aspects have to be considered. We will not discuss protection issues or DRM related issues here, as obviously every author deserves the right that is content is shared according within the given legal framework and according to his idea[1]. For an efficient distribution other parameters play also an important role. These parameters include the accessibility by customers (e.g. meta-data issues influencing the search results). Also the transferability of content is an important criterion. Thus, standardised content description interfaces and technical interfaces are mandatory.  

If these aspects are considered carefully, publishers as well as musicians will benefit. The digital content distribution does not mean that publishers or engravers will become obsolete in the future. Their knowledge on engraving music will be still needed and appreciated. Yet, publishers have to think about extending their services beyond printing music sheet. They have to think about services by which they can attract musicians. But this is already the case: Publishers are promoting the content of composers. And visibility for musicians can currently be only achieved by this service provided by publishers. In addition, even if the content is digitised, the publisher needs the service of the engravers in order to get a proper product. 

In the following we describe the general steps necessary for a sheet music publisher to create and publish a sheet music from the start.  

  1. A publisher receives a manuscript. The manuscript might be in paper or in electronic format. The electronic format is typically a music editing software format. Depending on the publisher’s workflow process a reference of the music might be created in the date base.
  2. The publisher decides to publish it (or not).
  1. The contract is signed between the composer and the publisher. This contract defines the publisher’s right.
  1. The publisher creates references for the products (the composer’s work and parts thereof). Multiple parts are possible. E.g. an opera consists of several scenes or several voices. The identification and referencing of the parts are relevant for engraving as well as selling and renting. The references can be internal references or a standardised reference like the ISMN (International Standard Music Number). While one reference can correspond with one part or a collection of parts typically a unique ISMN is given to the work without consideration of the different parts.
  1. References to meta-data and the meta-data itself are created and added to the parts.
  1. The material is given to engravers.
  1. The engraver’s endeavours result in a file that is sent to the publisher.
  1. The publisher sends the engraver’s work to the composer for proof-reading. This might result in a loop (re-entry point 5) depending on the composer’s acceptance.
  1. The publisher fills out forms[2] for the rights collecting societies containing information about the composer, the title, the instruments, the genres, the subtitles (if any), and the recommended duration of the work. This is similar to audio or CDs.
  1. The publisher prints the sheet music. Depending on the publisher the printed music sheet is distributed or stored in the stock. Other publishers prefer printing on demand. In this case the internal files are created that can be directly transferred to the printer if a customers buys a music sheet.
  1. The publisher includes the title(s) in his catalogue.
  1. Before distribution the publisher starts with marketing and promotion. Promotion includes press communication. For press communication content (or extracts and derivations thereof, cf. step 13), meta-data (description of the work, the composer …) is exchanged.
  1. Promotion might include the distribution of content extracts like the first page or sample pages or derived content like content of lower quality, e.g. lower resolution prints or in the case of audio/video low quality recordings. Sometimes promotion includes free of charge activities like the distribution of the content to music schools.
  1. Sub-licensing (e.g. to CD or movie producers) can also be part of the promotion activity.
  1. (Commercial) distribution includes selling of printed material, renting material, and (free) promotional material. Distribution can be done via multiple channels not limited to websites, music shops, direct sells, and P2P. The distributed content can be delivered in various formats and on various media types.
  1. Numerous clients exit: music schools (including universities, …), music shops, orchestras, ensembles, opera houses, teachers, musicians, music organisations (e.g. organising competitions, examinations, …), CD and film producers, libraries, festivals, …
  1. After the distribution of content to the customers an important aspect is the control and payment of rights usage (e.g. number of copies). Here the publishers are supported by the rights collecting societies. Additional revenue streams, e.g. from selling or renting sheet music, licensing (e.g. CD), and royalties are often the case.

2         Use Cases

The main actors involved in the “sheet music publisher” scenario are publisher, composer, engraver, rights collecting society, and customers as shown in Table 1. In the following paragraphs we will describe in details their roles and how they interact in different use cases. The individual use cases are analysed in detail and result in the identification of MPEG-21 related issues.  

Actor

Role

Brief Description

Goal

Concerns

Publisher

Primary

The publisher is responsible for publishing, marketing, distribution of content, protecting at the same time his IPR during the legal time or the time indicated in the contract.

A publisher wants to publish, distribute and sell his content according to his expert knowledge of the specific market.

sheet music for a competitive price, while maximising revenues, availability

Composer

Secondary

A creator of a work who wants his work to be published and distributed.

A composer wants effective usage (performance as well as diffusion of the content) and promotion of his work in order to increase the visibility and market value of his work and to participate in the creative market..

quality of his work, revenue streams,

Engraver

Secondary

An engraver typesets the manuscript of the composer. He edits the digital sheet music by copying it from the composer’s manuscript, using a music editor (Finale, Sibelius, Wedelmusic …).

He edits the sheet music in order to meet the Publisher’s/Customers’ and Composer’s requirements following the (commonly) accepted rules.

quality of his work, revenue streams

Rights Collecting Society

Secondary

An organisation collecting license fees on behalf of composers and publishers for certain types of usages of copyright-protected material and works.

A rights collecting society ensures that IPR is recognised (and remunerated) for each associated composer and publisher. It fights illegal use of IPR protected material (e.g. performances, copying) and returns the collected fees to the composer/publisher.

accurate monitoring of usage

Customer

Receiver

A customer buys or rents a work or rights on it. A customer can also be a performer.

Obtain the desired (quality) sheet music at “reasonable” cost and in “short” time.

reasonable costs, fast delivering, quality music sheets, availability, diversity of repertoire

Table  SEQ Table \* ARABIC 1: actors’ description including goals and concerns

2.1      Use case: “Publishing Work”

A publisher receives a work or manuscript from a composer. If the publisher accepts publishing the work several steps are necessary as shown in use case diagram in Figure 1. The publisher selects the manuscript for publication and the contract is signed. After signing the contract, the publisher initiates the process leading to printed sheet music or to a digital representation thereof. Furthermore the publisher takes care about marketing and promotion activities and informs rights collecting societies about the new piece of art.

 

Figure  SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1: use case diagram of "publishing work"

 The different actions related to the use case “publishing work” are described in Table 2. There is a time dependency between the individual activities as content has to be created before distribution or before the creation of promotional material.  

USE CASE #1

Publishing Work

 

Goal in Context

 

A publisher receives a work or manuscript from a composer. The publisher decides if the received document is selected for publication or not.

Primary,

Secondary Actors

 

primary: Publisher,

secondary: Composer, Engraver, Rights Collecting Society

recipient: Customer

Preconditions

 

composer’s work available

Success End Condition

 

work is published and distributed

 

Failed End Condition

 

no publication (from this publisher) available

 

Trigger

 

“Publishing Work” can be triggered by the composers or by the publisher. In the first case the composers wants his work to be published. In the second case the publisher requests a composer’s work.

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

Step

 

Action

 

 

#1

Publisher receives manuscript or music work in digital format or on paper. And decides to publish it. Contracts are signed.

 

#2

The content is created, which involves the identification of the parts/versions. References to the individual parts are created. Meta-data are created and connected with the references. The engraver typesets the content.

 

#3

Marketing and Promotion starts. For marketing and promotion the sheet music or derived work (e.g. sample pages) might be needed.

 

#4

Distribution of the work includes selling and renting. The sheet music must be available.

 

#5

The usage and payment of rights usage controlled and enforced by the publisher, who is supported by the rights collecting societies. For their support a notification about the new work is needed.

 

 

 

SUB-VARIATIONS

 

Step

Branching Action

 

#1A

References and meta-data can be created at this step

Table  SEQ Table \* ARABIC 2: use case description "publishing work"

2.2      Use case: “Manuscript Selection”     

Before a publisher selects a manuscript he receives it from the musician. The manuscript can be on paper (handwritten or printed) or already in a digital file format. The publisher reviews the document and decides after the reviews.

 

USE CASE #2

Manuscript Selection

 

Goal in Context

 

A publisher receives a work or manuscript from a composer. The publisher decides if the received document is selected for publication or not.

Primary,

Secondary Actors

primary: Publish    

secondary: Composer

Preconditions

 

Composer’s work is available

 

Success End Condition

 

Publisher accepts Composer’s work

 

Failed End Condition

 

Publisher rejects Composer’s work

 

Minimum Guarantees

 

Publisher cannot further access Composer’s work after rejection.

Trigger

 

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

Step

 

Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1

Publisher receives manuscript or music work in digital format or on paper.

Part 9 (File Format), Part 5 (REL), and Part 4 (IPMP): see sub-variations

 

#2

Publisher reviews manuscript.

 

 

 

#3

Publisher decides to publish.

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXTENSIONS

Step

Branching Action

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

 

 

 

SUB-VARIATIONS

 

 

Branching Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1A

 

Received music work is a manuscript in paper format. It can be handwritten or printed or formatted using a music editor.

 

 

#1B

Received music work is in electronic format. This electronic format is typically a music notation software format.

Part 9 (File Format): The publisher can receive the digital file in a common format (see also MPEG-SMN)

Part 5 (REL): The composer can assign rights to the music file. E.g. only viewing on screen, playing in MIDI or transcription but not printing is allowed for the publisher during the manuscript selection phase.

Part 4 (IPMP): Ensures the enforcement of rights.

 

#3A

Publisher rejects manuscript.

Part 5 (REL) and Part 4 (IPMP): enforcement of composer’s rights.

 

2.3      Use case: “Signing Contract”

After accepting the manuscript for publishing the publisher and the musicians negotiate about license and rights issues. After agreeing they sign a contract that allows the publisher to typeset and distribute the content.

 

USE CASE #3

Signing Contract

 

Goal in Context

 

The contract is signed between publisher and composer. The contract defines the publisher’s rights.

Primary,

Secondary Actors

primary: Publisher,

secondary: Composer

Preconditions

 

Publisher accepts the Composer’s work

 

Success End Condition

 

signed contract available

 

Failed End Condition

 

no signed contract available

 

Minimum Guarantees

 

Publisher cannot further access Composer’s work after rejection.

Trigger

 

“Signing Contract“ is triggered by (successful) manuscript selection

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

Step

 

Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1

Publisher and Composer negotiate about license and rights issues.

Part 5 (REL) and Part 6 (RDD): The aim is a license containing the rights of the publisher expressed in REL on the basis of RDD.

 

#2

Publisher and Composer agree on license and rights issues.

 

Part 5 (REL) and Part 6 (RDD): see #1

 

#3

Publisher and Composer sign the contract.

 

Part 5 (REL) and Part 6 (RDD) : see #1

 

 

 

 

EXTENSIONS

Step

Branching Action

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

 

 

 

SUB-VARIATIONS

 

 

Branching Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#2A

 

Publisher and Composer do not agree on license and rights issues.

Part 4 (IPMP) ensures the enforcement of rights.

 

2.4      Use case: “Content creation”

The publisher transfers the content to engravers (either internally or externally), who will engrave the sheet music. Additionally the publisher has to create meta-data about the content and maybe about the composer. This meta-data includes references between the meta-data and the new content as well as to already existing content.

 

USE CASE #4

Content creation

 

Goal in Context

 

The sheet music is engraved; references and meta-data are created and linked.

Primary,

Secondary Actors

 

Publisher (creation of meta-data and references), Engraver

 

 

Preconditions

 

Contract between engraver and publisher. Contract between Publisher and Composer. Composer’s manuscript accessible.

 

Success End Condition

 

sheet music and meta-data created and referenced

 

Failed End Condition

 

sheet music or meta-data not created and not referenced

 

Minimum Guarantees

<how the interests of the stakeholders are protected in all circumstances>

Trigger

 

Publisher initiates engraving and meta-data creation process.

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

Step

 

Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1

Publisher transmits manuscript to engraver

 

Part 9 (File Format): The publisher can transmit the digital file in a common format (see also MPEG-SMN)

Part 5 (REL): The publisher can assign rights to the music file. E.g. only editing but not printing is allowed for the engraver. Access rights are given only to one specific engravers or an engraving company.

Part 4 (IPMP): Ensures the enforcement of rights.

 

#2

Publishers creates meta-data

Part 3 (DII) and MPEG-7 enables access to existing meta-data.

 

#3

Engraver engraves sheet music

 

 

#4

Engraved sheet music is given to Publisher (together with the manuscript).

Part 9 (File Format

Part 5 (REL) and Part 4 (IPMP): Allows the revocation of access rights to the engraver.

 

#5

Creation of references between meta-data and sheet music.

Part 3 (DII) creation of a unique identifier.

 

 

 

 

EXTENSIONS

Step

Branching Action

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

 

 

 

SUB-VARIATIONS

 

 

Branching Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

 

 

 

 

2.5      Use case: “Creating and connecting references and meta-data”

Different versions of the content are prepared and connected with meta-data using references.

 

CASE #5

Creating and connecting references and meta-data

 

 

Goal in Context

 

The publisher decides, which versions/parts of the content will be published. Multiple versions/parts are possible. For each part a reference is created. This reference can be an internal ID or a common ID like the ISMN. One reference corresponds to one part (see page 2 §4). Meta-data is created. References and meta-data are connected. Meta-data is added to the parts.

Primary Actors

Publisher

Preconditions

signed contract

Success End Condition

references and meta-data for all parts/versions available and linked to each other

 

Failed End Condition

references or meta-data not available

 

Trigger

signed contract

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

Step

 

Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1

identification of the versions/parts

Part 2 (DID):

identification and organisation of the structure and makeup of the music work, in terms of containers, items, components and resources as defined within the DID model

Part 3 (DII):

unique identification of IP related to the different parts

 

#2

creation of the references

Part 3 (DII): specification of unique identifiers for the music work parts (Digital Items and parts).

 

#3

creation of the meta-data

Part 3 (DII): identification of description schemes.

 

 

#4

linking of references and meta-data

Part 2 (DID):

XML Schema for DIDL

Part 3 (DII):

a) specification of unique identifiers for the music work parts (Digital Items and parts),

b) identification of description schemes

 

 

 

 

EXTENSIONS

Step

Branching Action

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

 

 

Part 3 (DII):

a)        Relationships between the music work parts (Digital Items and parts) and existing identification systems specified within Part 3 can be used to link external references.

b)       Relationships between the music work parts (Digital Items and parts) and relevant description schemes specified within Part 3 can be used to link external metadata.

 

 

 

 

SUB-VARIATIONS

 

Branching Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#4A

references can also be external references (ISMN)

Part 2 (DID):

identification and organisation of the structure and makeup of the music work, in terms of containers, items, components and resources as defined within the DID model.

Part 3 (DII):

unique identification of IP related to the different parts

         

 

2.6      Use case: “Engraving Work”

The engraver engraves the work he received from the publisher. The result is returned to the publisher who forwards it to the composer for reviewing. This step might be repeated until the composer is satisfied with the engraved sheet music.

 

USE CASE #6

Engraving Work

 

USE CASE #6

Goal in Context

 

The material is transmitted to the engraver. The engravers endeavour results in a file that is transmitted to the publisher. The publisher forwards this work to the composer. The composer proof-reads the engraver’s work. If the composer is satisfied with the result this process is finished. If the composer is not satisfied the engraver has to correct his work until the composer agrees.

 

Primary,

Secondary Actors

 

Engraver

 

Preconditions

 

Contract between Publisher  and Engraver, manuscript accessible

 

Success End Condition

 

Sheet Music engraved

 

Failed End Condition

 

Sheet Music not engraved

 

Minimum Guarantees

 

Trigger

 

Publisher (signed contract and available manuscript)

 

DESCRIPTION

 

Step

 

Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1

Engraver receives manuscript

 

Part 9 (File Format): The publisher can transmit the digital file in a common format (see also MPEG-SMN)

Part 5 (REL): The publisher can assign rights to the music file. E.g. only editing but not printing is allowed for the engraver. Access rights are given only to one specific engravers or an engraving company.

Part 4 (IPMP): Ensures the enforcement of rights.

 

#2

Sheet music is engraved

 

 

 

 

 

EXTENSIONS

Step

Branching Action

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

 

 

 

SUB-VARIATIONS

 

 

Branching Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

 

 

 

         

 

2.7      Use case: “Marketing and Promotion”

Different marketing and promotion activities are initiated by the publisher. This includes the distribution of extracts or lower-quality products as well as sublicensing. It has to be done before the product is sold.

 

USE CASE #7

Marketing and Promotion

 

USE CASE #7

Goal in Context

 

The publisher promotes his titles. Promotion can include the distribution of extracts or lower-quality products. The titles can be sublicensed e.g. to CD or movie producers.

 

Primary,

Secondary Actors

 

primary: Publisher,

secondary: Customers

Preconditions

 

Contract between Publisher and Composer or Composer’s work ready for publishing (engraved, identifiers and descriptors assigned). Agreement between Publisher and Composer on grants and related compensations.

 

Success End Condition

 

Promotion activity started. Promotion material distributed to potential customers.

 

Failed End Condition

 

Promotion activity not started.

 

Minimum Guarantees

 

Trigger

 

Contract between Publisher and Composer.

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

Step

 

Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1

Publisher distributes promotional content to potential customers.

 

Part 9 (File Format): The publisher can transmit the digital file in a common format (see also MPEG-SMN).

Part 5 (REL) and Part 6 (RDD): The publisher grants limited rights to the content. E.g. only viewing for a limited period of time but not printing.

Part 4 (IPMP): Ensures the enforcement of rights.

 

#2

Customer buys rights on sheet music (including sub-licensing).

Part 5 (REL) and Part 6 (RDD): New version of the license file is distributed representing the bought rights.

Part 4 (IPMP): Ensures the enforcement of rights.

 

 

 

 

EXTENSIONS

Step

Branching Action

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

 

 

 

SUB-VARIATIONS

 

 

Branching Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1A

 

Different kinds of transmission channels (CD, email …) are possible.

 

Part 9 (File Format): The publisher can transmit the digital file in a common format (see also MPEG-SMN).

 

 

#2A

 

Customer doesn’t buy rights on sheet music.

 

Part 5 (REL) and Part 6 (RDD): Rights are only valid for a period of time or rights are revoked.

Part 4 (IPMP): Ensures the enforcement of rights.

         

 

 

2.8      Use case: “Commercial Distribution”

The publisher offers the content to customers. Typically this is initiated by the customer who requests content from the publisher directly or indirectly (via intermediates, like music shops or music schools). Besides the content the publisher might also grant rights to the customers or sub-licensing the content. Content and sub-licensing contracts can be delivered in various formats and on numerous channels to the customers. The customer pays the publisher. Different payment methods are possible. 

 

USE CASE #8

Commercial Distribution

 

USE CASE #8

Goal in Context

 

Work is sold, rented, or distributed freely.

 

Primary,

Secondary Actors

 

primary: Publisher, Customers

secondary: Composer

Preconditions

 

Composer’s work ready for publishing (engraved, identifiers and descriptors assigned). Agreement between Publisher and Composer on grants and related compensations.

Success End Condition

 

Publisher delivers the content/rights and gets the proper fee. Customer receives the desired content and rights/permissions.

 

Failed End Condition

 

The transaction is aborted before successful completion, usually by the initiator, i.e the Customer for considering the transaction no more convenient. Publisher doesn’t get paid and Customer doesn’t receive content/rights.

 

Minimum Guarantees

Laws ruling (on-line) commercial transactions apply.

Trigger

 

Customer’s request

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

Step

 

Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1

Customer requests content or rights on content.

Part 6 (RDD):

The RDD specifies the terms Customers should use to ask for the rights needed.

 

 

#2

Content is delivered to the customer.

Part 4 (IPMP):

IPMP Extension walkthrough (the sequence of steps needed to consume content protected by the MPEG-n IPMP Extensions).

Rights and permissions are declared according to Part 5 (REL) and Part 6 (RDD).

 

Part 9 (File Format):

format for distributing Digital Items (i.e. music works and related parts)

 

#3

Payment is received.

 

         

 

EXTENSIONS

Step

Branching Action

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

 

 

 

SUB-VARIATIONS

 

 

Branching Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1A

 

Different customers are possible including intermediates.

Part 4 (IPMP): IPMP Extension walkthrough (the sequence of steps needed to consume content protected by the MPEG-n IPMP Extensions).

Part 5 (REL) and Part 6 (RDD): Rights and permissions are declared.

 

 

#2A

 

Instead of delivering content rights are granted or work is sub-licensed

Part 4 (IPMP): IPMP Extension walkthrough (the sequence of steps needed to consume content protected by the MPEG-n IPMP Extensions).

Part 5 (REL) and Part 6 (RDD): Rights and permissions are declared.

 

 

#2B

 

Content is distribution in various formats (on paper or in various digital formats)

Part 4 (IPMP): IPMP Extension walkthrough (the sequence of steps needed to consume content protected by the MPEG-n IPMP Extensions).

Part 5 (REL) and Part 6 (RDD): Rights and permissions are declared.

 

#2C

 

Content is distributed on various distribution channels (download, email, or CD via mail)

Part 4 (IPMP): IPMP Extension walkthrough (the sequence of steps needed to consume content protected by the MPEG-n IPMP Extensions).

Part 5 (REL) and Part 6 (RDD): Rights and permissions are declared.

 

#3A

 

Different payment methods are possible (e.g. credit card, cash, or micro payment solutions)

 

 

#3B

 

Payment is not received

Part 4 (IPMP), Part 5 (REL) and Part 6 (RDD): Access rights can be revoked.

 

 

2.9      Use case: “Creating Sheet Music”

The publisher prints the sheet music. As the printed sheet music is distributed it is included in the publisher’s catalogue to become visible for potential customers.

 

USE CASE #9

Creating Sheet Music

 

USE CASE #9

Goal in Context

 

The publisher prints the sheet music. The publisher includes the title(s) in his catalogue.

 

Primary,

Secondary Actors

 

primary: Publisher

 

Preconditions

 

Composer’s work ready for publishing (engraved, identifiers and descriptors assigned). Agreement between Publisher and Composer on grants and related compensations.

 

Success End Condition

 

Printed sheet music is available for shipping.

 

Failed End Condition

 

No printed sheet music is available.

 

Minimum Guarantees

 

Trigger

 

Dependent on the publisher’s business model and stock policy (stock vs. print-on demand).

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

Step

 

Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1

Publisher prints the sheet music

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXTENSIONS

Step

Branching Action

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#2

 

Publisher stored the printed sheet music in the stock.

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUB-VARIATIONS

 

 

Branching Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1A

Distribution by download: no printed sheet music is available

 

         

2.10Use case: “Rights Collecting Societies Notification”

The publisher informs the rights collecting society about the newly created sheet music.

 

USE CASE #11

Rights Collecting Societies Notification

 

USE CASE #11

Goal in Context

 

Information about the work itself and related information (e.g. the composer, the recommended duration …) are transferred to the Rights Collecting Societies.

 

Primary,

Secondary Actors

 

primary: Publisher

secondary: Rights Collecting Society

 

Preconditions

 

Composer’s work ready for publishing (engraved, identifiers and descriptors assigned). Agreement between Publisher and Composer on grants and related compensations.

 

Success End Condition

 

New work is registered at rights collecting societies.

 

Failed End Condition

 

New work is not registered at rights collecting societies.

 

Minimum Guarantees

 

Trigger

 

availability  of new work

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

Step

 

Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1

Publishers registers new work at Rights Collecting Society

 

Part 3 (DII): Identification of the content.

Part 5 (REL) and Part 6 (RDD): Rights associated with the new content.

 

 

 

 

EXTENSIONS

Step

Branching Action

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

 

 

 

SUB-VARIATIONS

 

 

Branching Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

 

 

 

         

 

 

 

2.11Use case: “Control and Payment of Rights Usage”

The publisher - supported by the rights collecting societies – controls the usage rights and their payment.

 

USE CASE #10

Control and payment of usage rights

 

USE CASE #10

Goal in Context

 

After the distribution of content to the customers an important aspect is the control and payment of rights usage (e.g. number of copies). Here the publishers are supported by the rights collecting societies. Additional revenue streams, e.g. from selling or renting sheet music, licensing (e.g. CD), and royalties are often the case.

 

Primary,

Secondary Actors

 

primary: Publisher and Rights Collecting Society, Composer

 

Preconditions

 

Composer’s work ready for publishing (and already distributed).

Success End Condition

 

Usage rights are monitored and usage is paid accordingly.

Failed End Condition

 

Usage of the content without required usage rights.

 

Minimum Guarantees

 

Trigger

 

 

 

 

DESCRIPTION

 

Step

 

Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1

Counting the copies sold and paid,

 

Part 4 (IPMP)

Part 11 (PAT)

Part 15 (Event Reporting)

 

#2

Calculating the fees to be paid to the composer. These fees are calculated and paid directly by the publisher.

 

 

#3

The Rights Collecting Society is responsible for the fees coming from the performances of the work

 

 

 

 

 

EXTENSIONS

Step

Branching Action

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

#1.1

 

Control by the publisher (and he/she wishes the composer) of the list of fees each 6 months. Work omitted, work attributed to a wrong composer

Part 15 (Event Reporting)

 

 

 

 

SUB-VARIATIONS

 

 

Branching Action

 

MPEG-21 parts and sections

 

 

 

 

         

 

 

 The Interactive-Music Network

 

 

The “Sheet Music Publisher” Scenario

 

Version: 0.9

Date: 06/09/04

 

Project Number: IST-2001-37168

Project Title: The Interactive-Music Network

Title: The “Sheet Music Publisher” Scenario

 

Working Group: WG-DIST, WG-LIB, WG-PROT

Author(s): Michel Girer (Listesso, France), Bernhard Günther (MICA, Austria), Francesco Spadoni (Rigel Engineering, Italy), Martin Schmucker (Fraunhofer-IGD, Germany)

 

 

Abstract:

This document analysis the “sheet music publisher scenario”. Relevant parts of MPEG-21 are identified, to show how sheet music publishers can benefit from MPEG-21.

 

Keyword List:

music, multimedia, music notation, standards, music libraries, music distribution, music publishing, scenario, sheet music publisher, use cases


 

[1] Nevertheless, illegal copies are a big threat to publishers.

[2] The form(s) depend(s) on the work.